Dienstag, 26. Mai 2015

Die jugendzentrierte Online-Kommunikation im österreichischen Europawahlkampf

Dies ist ein Gastbeitrag von Mag. Stefan Brunnthaler. Er ist Absolvent der Universität Wien und beim Verlag des Österreichischen Gewerkschaftsbundes tätig. Der Text stellt eine Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Ergebnisse aus seiner Magisterarbeit "Die jugendzentrierte Online-Kommunikation der österreichischen Parteien im Europawahlkampf 2014" dar.

Logo der Universität Wien
Die österreichische Politik, vor allem die beiden ehemals großen Volksparteien SPÖ (Sozialdemokratische Partei Östereichs) und ÖVP (Österreichische Volkspartei), stellt die Kommunikation mit Jugendlichen seit Jahren vor immer größere Probleme. Mit der Etablierung des Internets in den letzten 15 bis 20 Jahren haben sich hierfür viele neue zusätzliche Möglichkeiten, aber auch Herausforderungen eröffnet.

Bei der Europawahl 2014 konnten vor allem die Grünen bei der jungen WählerInnenschicht (16-29 Jahre) reüssieren, sie erreichten 26 % der Stimmen, gefolgt von FPÖ (23 %), SPÖ (19 %), sowie ÖVP und NEOS mit jeweils 15 %. Dieser Erfolg war für die Grünen maßgeblich für das Erreichen des dritten Mandats zum Europaparlament, in keiner anderen Altersgruppe konnte sie ein annähernd hohes Ergebnis erreichen (Gesamt 14,5 %).1 Auch bei FPÖ und NEOS war das Ergebnis der Europawahl (sowie der Nationalratswahl 2013) vor allem durch die guten Ergebnisse im jungen WählerInnensegment bedingt.

Im Rahmen einer quantitativen Inhaltsanalyse wurde untersucht, in welchem Ausmaß und in welcher Form die politischen AkteurInnen im Wahlkampf zur Europawahl 2014 jugendzentrierte Online-Kommunikation einsetzten. Jugendzentrierte Kommunikation beschreibt dabei jene Kommunikation, welche sich direkt an junge Menschen richtet, von diesen handelt oder um diese herum aufgebaut ist. Als junge Menschen/Jugend/Jugendliche/JungwählerInnen wurden alle wahlberechtigten Menschen im Alter zwischen 16 und 20 Jahren definiert. Grundlage für diese Definition war die übliche Alterseinteilung der wichtigsten politischen Umfrageinstitute (16-29 Jahre), wobei die obere Altersgrenze von 29 auf 20 Jahre herabgesetzt wurde, da der Fokus der Arbeit vor allem auf dem ersten Drittel des Altersspektrums lag.
In Folge der Analyse wurden die primären Online-Kanäle der zur Europawahl 2014 antretenden österreichischen Parteien, ihrer Top 4-KandidatInnen und ihrer Jugendorganisationen in den letzten vier Wochen vor dem Wahltermin untersucht. Insgesamt wurden 38 Websites, 45 Facebook-Seiten und 36 Twitter-Kanäle analysiert. 

Jugendorganisationen dominieren, werden aber kaum eingebunden.

 

 


Tortendiagramm
Abb 1: Anteil der jugendzentrierte Kommunikation der Parteien
Im vierwöchigen Untersuchungszeitraum konnten insgesamt 815 Wahlkampf-Beiträge mit jugendzentrierter Online-Kommunikation gefunden werden. Knapp mehr als die Hälfte davon stammt von Kanälen der beiden Regierungsparteien ÖVP und SPÖ. 

Analysiert man die Beiträge auf Ebene der Organisationseinheiten, erkennt man, dass der Großteil der jugendzentrierten Online-Kommunikation, wenig überraschend, auf das Konto der jeweiligen Jugendorganisationen ging. Filtert man diese nun aus der Statistik ergibt sich ein anderes Bild als oben. (Abbildung 2)



Balkendiagramm
Abb 2: Anteil Absender jugendzentrierter Kommunikation
Trotz ihrer großen Aktivität wurden die Inhalte der Jugendorganisationen nur marginal für die Online-Kommunikation von Parteien und KandidatInnen genutzt. Nur 14 der 196 auf Facebook- und Twitter-Kanälen geteilten Beiträge stammten von Pages der jeweiligen Jugendorganisationen. Auch die von den Jugendorganisationen teilweise eigens für den Wahlkampf kreierten Hashtags (z.B. #jungeseuropa der Jungen Volkspartei) wurden kaum von Parteien und KandidatInnen übernommen.


Klassische Websites irrelevant, Wahlkampf ist Wahlkampfthema Nummer 1


Bei der Auswahl der Online-Kanäle für die jugendzentrierte Online-Kommunikation wird klar, dass sich die Web 2.0-Kanäle Facebook und Twitter klar gegenüber klassischen Webauftritten durchgesetzt haben. Hier scheint der Sprung in die sozialen Medien, mit Abstrichen bei der Nutzung der integrativen Funktionalitäten (siehe oben), bereits gelungen zu sein.

Balkendiagramm
Abb.3: Genutzte Kanäle der jugendzentrierten Online-Kommunikation der Parteien


Die Thematisierung von Inhalten lässt eine klare Konzentration auf Meta-Themen des Wahlkampfes, also auf die Beschreibung von Wahlkampfauftritten und -terminen, Interviews und sonstige den Wahlkampf an sich betreffende Inhalten, erkennen. Diese werden von allen Parteien, mit Ausnahme der Grünen, bei der Ansprache von jungen Menschen mehrheitlich behandelt.

Modernes politisches Kommunikationsmanagement LIGHT

 

 

Abb.4: Anteil des soziodemographischen Zielgruppenzuschnitts
Abb 5: Anteil Personalisierung
Im Rahmen der Inhaltsanalyse wurde auch untersucht inwieweit in der jugendzentrierten Online-Kommunikation Instrumente des modernen politischen Kommunikationsmanagements, wie Personalisierung und soziodemographischer Zielgruppenzuschnitt, eingesetzt wurden. Beide fanden nur geringen bis mittelmäßigen Eingang in die Beiträge der politischen AkteurInnen. Das Instrument der Personalisierung von Beiträgen auf die jeweiligen SpitzenkandidatInnen war hierbei noch verbreiteter als jenes des soziodemographischen Zielgruppenzuschnitts. 



Ausnahmeerscheinung NEOS


Die NEOS zeigten mitunter wie die Ansprache von JungwählerInnen im Web funktionieren kann. Im Unterschied zu den anderen Parteien lief die jugendzentrierte Online-Kommunikation bei ihnen nicht nur im Bereich von Nebensätzen oder wenigen Sekunden in Videoclips ab. Die Jugend und ihre Themen (hier vor allem Erasmus) waren ein erkennbarer, essentieller Teil der Online-Kommunikation. Diese Feststellung wird unter anderem dadurch untermauert, dass die jugendzentrierte Kommunikation nicht zum größten Teil der Jugendorganisation überlassen wurde. Sie war auf Bundespartei, KandidatInnen und Jugendorganisation gleichermaßen aufgeteilt, sogar in größerem Maße auf die beiden erstgenannten. Ein Faktor war hierbei mit Sicherheit auch der erst 25-jährige NEOS-Kandidat auf Listenplatz 2, Stefan Windberger. Auch Hashtags mit Jugendansprache (#jungenachbrüssel, #144heurope) wurde gleichermaßen bei Bundespartei, KandidatInnen und Jugendorganisation gefunden.

Fazit


Die Wichtigkeit, die Zielgruppe der JungwählerInnen in der Online-Kommunikation mit spezifischen Informationen und Inhalten zu versorgen, scheint weiterhin noch nicht ganz auf der Agenda der politischen AkteurInnen angekommen zu sein. Dabei hätte gerade der Europawahlkampf 2014 in Zeiten zunehmender Jugendarbeitslosigkeit und damit einhergehender Verunsicherung der jungen Generation eine Vielzahl an Anknüpfungs- und Angriffspunkten für die wahlwerbenden Akteurinnen und Akteure liefern können.

Den Jugendwahlkampf zum größten Teil den jeweiligen Jugendorganisationen zu überlassen ist auf der einen Seite durchaus nachvollziehbar: Sie sitzen quasi direkt an der Quelle, wissen um aktuelle Problemfelder und Themenschwerpunkte der Jugend Bescheid und können „lockerer“ und auf derselben Ebene mit der Zielgruppe kommunizieren. Jedoch sollten die Jugendorganisationen stärker in die Kommunikation der anderen Organisationseinheiten integriert werden.

Natürlich ist eine spezifische strategische Kommunikation mit JungwählerInnen keine Garantie für Wahlerfolge in dieser WählerInnengruppe. Hierfür sind noch andere Aspekte von Bedeutung, wie ein jugendliches Image, passende KandidatInnen und ein auf junge Menschen abgestimmtes politisches Programm. Eine gezielte jugendzentrierte Online-Kommunikation kann jedoch dabei helfen, einen Imagewandel herbeizuführen und die passenden KandidatInnen dabei unterstützen, die abgestimmten Programminhalte an die richtige WählerInnengruppe zu bringen. Dafür braucht es aber einen prinzipiellen Wandel in der politischen Kommunikation: Weg von der Feststellung „Wir erreichen die jungen Menschen über unsere Online-Kanäle!“, hin zu der Frage „Wie erreichen wir junge Menschen über Online-Kanäle?“


1 SORA/Institut für Strategieanalysen: Wahltagsbefragung und Wählerstromanalyse. Europawahl 2014. In: http://www.sora.at/fileadmin/downloads/wahlen/2014_EU-Wahl_Wahltagsbefragung-Grafiken.pdf (2.5.2015)


Autor 

Stefan Brunnthaler
Mag. Stefan Brunnthaler studierte Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaften an der Universität Wien. Er ist beruflich im Verlag des Österreichischen Gewerkschaftsbundes tätig, mit Schwerpunkt auf Online-Marketing, Social Media und politische Kommunikation. Er absolviert derzeit den postgradualen Masterlehrgang "Public Communication" (Schwerpunkt Public Affairs) am Insitut für Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaften in Wien.

Der Text stellt eine Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Ergebnisse aus seiner Magisterarbeit "Die jugendzentrierte Online-Kommunikation der österreichischen Parteien im Europawahlkampf 2014" dar.



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